Hydraulic fracturing impacts and technologies : a by Venki Uddameri, Audra Morse, Kay J. Tindle

By Venki Uddameri, Audra Morse, Kay J. Tindle

Hydraulic Fracturing affects and applied sciences: A Multidisciplinary Perspective serves as an creation to hydraulic fracturing and gives balanced insurance of its merits and capability unwanted effects. featuring a holistic review of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental affects, this booklet chronicles the heritage and improvement of unconventional oil and gasoline construction and describes the dangers linked to using those applied sciences. extra particularly, it addresses hydraulic fracturing’s use and dependence on quite a lot of water as a fracturing medium. It examines the bounds of reusing flowback and produced water, explores cost effective how you can fresh or successfully cast off water utilized in fracturing, and gives feedback for the effective use, discovery, and recycle strength of non-potable water. using a staff of specialists from and academia, the textual content presents readers with a a number of lens approach―incorporating a variety of views and strategies surrounding this evolving expertise.

This book:

  • Leads with an outline of hydraulic fracturing operations and applied sciences
  • Considers various felony matters linked to hydraulic fracturing
  • Summarizes human overall healthiness and environmental hazards linked to hydraulic fracturing operations
  • Discusses the analytes selected through researchers as attainable signs of groundwater illness from unconventional drilling processes
  • Presents innovations for lowering the freshwater footprint of hydraulic fracturing
  • Discusses water therapy applied sciences and suggestions to recycle and reuse produced waters, and more

Hydraulic Fracturing affects and applied sciences: A Multidisciplinary Perspective brings jointly specialists from disciplines that come with petroleum, civil, and environmental engineering; environmental sciences chemistry toxicology; legislation; media; and communications; and gives readers with a multidisciplinary outlook and impartial, scientifically credible strategies to matters surrounding hydraulic fracturing operations.

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Sample text

F—Frac reorientation possible—net pressure increasing more rapidly. g—Slope change—press increase nearly double previous press trend. h—Unit slope pressure rise as proppant feed is stopped. i—Pumps are shut down after post flush—this job not overflushed. j—Immediate pressure drop—friction pressure during injection. k—Expanded grid—pressure hammer—fract-to-wellbore connection ok. l—Instantaneous shut in pressure (ISPI)—hold to get frac closure pressure. m—Proppant started at minimum rate that proppant can be transported in wellbore.

10 RATE In the most general terms, the frac injection rate produces the pressure to drive the type of fractures needed in a completion, but to drive fractures from multiple initiation points requires some thought about how to both initiate and drive a fracture. If only a single fracture was created, the design would be much simpler. 1 Common Additives Used in Slick Water Fracturing in Shales Most Common Slickwater Frac Additives Composition CAS Number Friction reducer Polyacrylamide 9003-05-8 Near 100% of fracs use this additive Biocide Scale inhibitor Glutaraldehyde Phosphonate and polymers Various 111-30-8 6419-19-8 and others Various 80% or less ~10%–25% of all fracs use this additive ~10%–25% of all fracs use this additive Surfactant Percentage of Shale Fracs That Use This Additive Alternate Use Adsorbent in baby diapers, flocculent in drinking water preparation Medical disinfectant Detergents Dish soaps and cleaners 10 Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts and Technologies spaced cluster perforating, and sufficient rate to initiate and drive fractures.

Spill dry additives 4. Spill of diesel from truck wreck 5. Spill of dieselwrecked refueler 6. Spill frac tank water, no adds 7. Spill frac tank water w/adds 8. Spill diesel fuel while refueling 9. Spill of frac tank-flowback water 10. Frac press ruptures surfaces casing 11. Cooling pulls tubing out of packer (casing maintains intergrity) 12. Mud channel, well <2000 ft 13. Mud channel, well <2000 ft 14. Intersects well in the pay zone 15. Intersects properly abandoned well 16. Intersects improperly abandoned well 17.

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