Analog Electronics. Analog Circuitry Explained by Ian Hickman

By Ian Hickman

This booklet is meant for the working towards digital engineer explaining analog digital circuits as easily as attainable. Its target is to take the reader inside of digital circuits explaining precisely what they do by using vector diagrams

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The -6dB/octave asymptote is cancelled beyond ωο2 by the + 6 dB/octave asymptote. They crudely approximate the actual amplitude shown dashed. Likewise, phase asymptotes running from 0 ° below the comer frequency to - 9 0 ° or + 9 0 ° above, indicate the phase tendency if ωο2 > ωοι. (e) Circle diagram. For any phase angle less than φη, there are two different possible values of Uo, the larger at a frequency below V[(l/Ti)(l/T2)], the smaller at a frequency above. (f) Using the circle diagram. If you are better at geometry than at calculus or complex numbers, the circle diagram enables you to find the attenuation at the frequency where the phase shift φ is maximum.

A second grid was added between the control grid 47 and the a n o d e . This was called a screen grid and was maintained at a constant positive potential; any variations of screen grid current were shunted to earth by a screen grid decoupling capacitor of low reactance at R F . T h e tetrode or screen grid valve provided stable R F gain, since although both the control grid and the a n o d e exhibited capaci­ tance to the screen grid, this was grounded as far as R F was concerned, and any remaining capacitance between control grid and a n o d e direct was exceed­ ingly small.

This can be very useful when handling signals, for example music reproduction from a disc or gramo­ phone record. On early 78 R P M records, C a r u s o , D a m e Nellie Melba or whoever was invariably accompanied by an annoying high-frequency hiss (worse on a worn record), not to mention the clicks due to scratches. In the case of an acoustic g r a m o p h o n e , the hiss could be tamed somewhat by stuffing a cloth or small cushion up the horn (the origin of 'putting a sock in it', p e r h a p s ) .

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