By Gabriele Manganaro
Have to wake up to hurry fast at the newest advances in excessive functionality information converters? wish aid picking the easiest structure on your software? With every little thing you want to find out about the foremost new converter architectures, this consultant is for you. It provides uncomplicated rules, circuit and process layout ideas and linked trade-offs, getting rid of long mathematical proofs and supplying intuitive descriptions prematurely. every little thing from time-to-digital converters to comparator-based/zero-crossing ADCs is roofed and every subject is brought with a quick precis of the basic fundamentals. useful examples describing genuine chips, besides broad comparability among architectural or circuit recommendations, ease structure choice and assist you reduce layout time and engineering possibility. Trade-offs, merits and drawbacks of every alternative are placed into standpoint with a dialogue of destiny traits, displaying the place this box is heading, what's using it and what an important unanswered questions are.
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Additional info for Advanced data converters
5 ). 6 ). g. e. we decided which one of the five contacts would have led to the desired value for R), and, finally, in order to be able to use the resistor at its desired value, we held the effect of the corrective action (by permanently shorting one of the five contacts). 5 Trimming and calibration 37 (1) measuring one or more parameters of the device that may need to be altered; (2) corrective action on the device that changes the parameters to the desired value (possibly verifying that the parameter has been changed to the desired value); (3) holding the corrective action (with the aim of holding the outcome of the parameter correction), for example, storing a record of it in some form of memory residing on the device or in a place directly accessible by the device during operation.
Specifically, when comparing the FOM values reported in papers and technical reports the reader should be warned about the consistency (or lack thereof) in the computation of such values. In some papers the power consumption P used in the computation may include all circuit blocks. , may be left out and, therefore, artificially give a more favorable FOM. Moreover, certain architectural choices may also accidentally provide misleading FOM values. g. those used in some successiveapproximation converters) with a large capacitance would provide a low kB T /C noise and good matching.
As stated above, when the input amplitude reaches full scale the output is clipped (in fact, in some converters, it may create undesired overload conditions that can lead to lengthy erroneous output sequences), hence the distortion dramatically and suddenly increases. Furthermore, if the input amplitude is appreciably lower than full scale then quantization effects can even make the power of the distortion tones change 4 Let us also remark that, since the distortion is frequency-dependent, these curves will change with frequency.