By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This sensible guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and numerous specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. basically destined for daily use by means of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers at any place they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes many of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment on hand for his or her prediction, detection and assessment. it is going to even be necessary to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
checklist of valuable Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain strategies
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain assessment
five. precis and total Conclusions - support Chart
Read or Download Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation PDF
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Additional info for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
Its effectiveness as a seal will depend in particular on its thickness and capillarity. Salt is an example of the ideal seal not only for its plastic behaviour under stress, but also for its perfect impermeability. Mechanisms leading to abnormal pressure arise in a variety of ways which we shall now examine one at a time. 1. THE OVERBURDEN EFFECT (UNDERCOMPACTION) Before explaining the phenomenon in detail, note that the principle behind the overburden effect arises from the balance between overburden pressure and the ability of a given formation to expel water.
31. - Schematic cross-section of a growth fault. Growth fault D Fig. 32. - Diagrammatic development of a residual shale mass (BnJce, 1973, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists) A. 6, C, D : successive stages of the mechanism. Although the importance of gravity in the development of growth faults is undisputed, trigger mechanisms are still open to debate. Basement tectonics, gravitational slumping of the sediments, salt or clay diapirism, differential compaction or a combination of these factors have all been suggested.
On the other hand, plastic clays, anhydrites and above all salt deposits are self-repairing, and are the only seals capable of retaining their impermeability even in conditions of severe deformation (Iraq, Iran). Fracture intensity depends on both the stress field (ie. the type of tectonic activity) and the mechanical behaviour of the layers. It is important to note that overpressure may often be laterally induced by the juxtaposition, by fault movement, of formations with different pressure regimes.