By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Read or Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides PDF
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Lorentz Invariance --
Gauge Fields --
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking --
Group conception --
The Lagrangian --
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U(1) Anomaly and the Chiral Lagrangian --
One-Loop constitution --
Quantum Electrodynamics --
The commonplace version --
Partial Symmetries of the traditional version --
Running the traditional version Parameters --
Higher measurement Electroweak Operators --
Higgs Polynomials --
Electroweak greater Dimensions Interactions --
One-Loop techniques --
General constitution --
Structure of the indirect Corrections --
Calculation of indirect Corrections --
[Delta]F = 1 approaches --
[Delta]F = 2 procedures --
Weak blending Phenomenology --
Standard version Calculations --
First trip: immense Neutrinos --
Neutrinos within the common version --
Lorentz research --
Standard version research --
Electroweak versions with huge Neutrinos --
Fermion Extensions --
Lepton-number Violating versions.
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
30 / 2. PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS voltage is such that nearly all primary events are counted, a plot of counting rate against applied voltage becomes nearly horizontal, and the flatness of the curve in this region, the plateau, is a measure of the ability of the counter to detect essentially all primary ionizing events. Any further increase in voltage will cause only a small increase in counting rate. An increase in the effective sensitive volume of the counter, or the onset of spurious pulses, can also cause the plateau to have a positive slope.
Alcohol has a lower ionization potential than argon, so that the ions moving toward the cathode will, after a few collisions, consist only of alcohol ions. In contrast to argon ions, alcohol ions dissociate and do not produce photoelectrons when neutralized at the cathode. Therefore, multiple pulsing is avoided. However, the alcohol ions dissociate upon being neutralized and when the supply of alcohol is exhausted, after some lo8 counts, poor plateau characteristics result. Halogen vapors also have the same quenching effect (Liebson and Friedman, 1948; Friedman, 1949).
Such photoelectrons give rise to spurious pulses that occur within 10 or 15 microseconds for most counters of typical dimensions, and operating pressures and voltages (see Campion, 1973). Longer delayed pulses, called after-pulses, arise from the neutralization of the positive ions close to the cathode wall with the emission of a photoelectron from the cathode wall (see BIPM, 1976). The addition of small proportions of gases with complex molecules that absorb photons without ionization increases the stability of the counter.